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12.1.0.2 Introduction to Zone Maps Part II (Changes) October 30, 2014

Posted by Richard Foote in 12c, Exadata, Oracle Indexes, Zone Maps.
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In Part I, I discussed how Zone Maps are new index like structures, similar to Exadata Storage Indexes, that enables the “pruning” of disk blocks during accesses of the table by storing the min and max values of selected columns for each “zone” of a table. A Zone being a range of contiguous (8M) blocks.

I showed how a Zone Map was relatively tiny but very effective in reducing the number of consistent gets for a well clustered column (ALBUM_ID).

In this post, we’re going to continue with the demo and look at what happens when we update data in the table with a Zone Map in place.

So lets update the ALBUM_ID column (which currently has a Zone Map defined) for a few rows. The value of ALBUM_ID was previously 1 for all these rows (the full range of values is currently between 1 and 100) but we’re going to update them to 142:

SQL> update big_bowie set album_id=142 where id between 1 and 100;

100 rows updated.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

 

So the maximum value of ALBUM_ID is now 142, not 100. If we look at the maximum value as currently listed in the Zone Map:

 

SQL> select max(max_1_album_id) from  big_bowie_album_id_zm;

MAX(MAX_1_ALBUM_ID)
-------------------
100

 

We notice the maximum is still defined as being 100. So the update on the table has not actually updated the contents of the Zone Map. So this is a big difference between Zone Maps and conventional indexes, indexes are automatically updated during DML operations, Zone Maps are not (unless the REFRESH ON COMMIT option is specified).

If we look at the state of Zone Map entries that have a minimum of 1 (the previous values of ALBUM_ID before the update):

SQL> select * from big_bowie_album_id_zm where min_1_album_id = 1;

ZONE_ID$ MIN_1_ALBUM_ID MAX_1_ALBUM_ID ZONE_LEVEL$ ZONE_STATE$ ZONE_ROWS$
---------- -------------- -------------- ----------- ----------- ----------
3.8586E+11              1              2           0           0      66234
3.8586E+11              1              2           0           1      65787
3.8586E+11              1              2           0           0      66223

 

We notice that one of the entries has a status of 1, meaning that a specific zone has been marked as stale. However, all the other zones are still OK.

If we look at the status of the overall Zone Map:

SQL> select zonemap_name, pruning, refresh_mode, invalid, stale, unusable
from dba_zonemaps where zonemap_name='BIG_BOWIE_ALBUM_ID_ZM';

ZONEMAP_NAME              PRUNING  REFRESH_MODE      INVALID STALE   UNUSABLE
------------------------- -------- ----------------- ------- ------- --------
BIG_BOWIE_ALBUM_ID_ZM     ENABLED  LOAD DATAMOVEMENT NO      NO      NO

 

We notice that the Zone Map is still “hunky dory” after the update.

If we now re-run the query we ran in Part I:

 

SQL> select * from big_bowie where album_id = 42;

100000 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.29

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1980960934

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                              | Name      | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                       |           |   100K|  8984K|  3269  (12)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL WITH ZONEMAP| BIG_BOWIE |   100K|  8984K|  3269  (12)| 00:00:01 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

1 - storage("ALBUM_ID"=42)
filter(SYS_ZMAP_FILTER('/* ZM_PRUNING */ SELECT "ZONE_ID$", CASE WHEN
BITAND(zm."ZONE_STATE$",1)=1 THEN 1 ELSE CASE WHEN (zm."MIN_1_ALBUM_ID" > :1 OR
zm."MAX_1_ALBUM_ID" < :2) THEN 3 ELSE 2 END END FROM "BOWIE"."BIG_BOWIE_ALBUM_ID_ZM" zm
WHERE zm."ZONE_LEVEL$"=0 ORDER BY zm."ZONE_ID$"',SYS_OP_ZONE_ID(ROWID),42,42)<3 AND "ALBUM_ID"=42)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
141  recursive calls
0  db block gets
3238  consistent gets
0  physical reads
0  redo size
3130019  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
761  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
21  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
0  sorts (memory)
0  sorts (disk)
100000  rows processed

 

We see the Zone Map was still used by the CBO. The number of consistent gets has increased (up from 2364 to 3238) as we now have to additional access all the blocks associated with this stale zone, but it’s still more efficient that reading all the blocks from the entire table.

If we want to remove the stale zone entries, we can refresh the Zone Map or rebuild it (for ON DEMAND refresh):

 

SQL> alter materialized zonemap big_bowie_album_id_zm rebuild;

Materialized zonemap altered.

 

If we now look at the Zone Map entry:

 

SQL> select * from big_bowie_album_id_zm where min_1_album_id = 1;

ZONE_ID$ MIN_1_ALBUM_ID MAX_1_ALBUM_ID ZONE_LEVEL$ ZONE_STATE$ ZONE_ROWS$
---------- -------------- -------------- ----------- ----------- ----------
3.8586E+11              1              2           0           0      66234
3.8586E+11              1            142           0           0      65787
3.8586E+11              1              2           0           0      66223

 

We see that the entry is no longer stale and now correctly reflects the actual maximum value within the zone (142).

If we now re-run the query:

SQL> select * from big_bowie where album_id = 42;

100000 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.30

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1980960934

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                              | Name      | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                       |           |   100K|  8984K|  3269  (12)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL WITH ZONEMAP| BIG_BOWIE |   100K|  8984K|  3269  (12)| 00:00:01 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

1 - storage("ALBUM_ID"=42)
filter(SYS_ZMAP_FILTER('/* ZM_PRUNING */ SELECT "ZONE_ID$", CASE WHEN
BITAND(zm."ZONE_STATE$",1)=1 THEN 1 ELSE CASE WHEN (zm."MIN_1_ALBUM_ID" > :1 OR
zm."MAX_1_ALBUM_ID" < :2) THEN 3 ELSE 2 END END FROM "BOWIE"."BIG_BOWIE_ALBUM_ID_ZM" zm
WHERE zm."ZONE_LEVEL$"=0 ORDER BY zm."ZONE_ID$"',SYS_OP_ZONE_ID(ROWID),42,42)<3 AND "ALBUM_ID"=42)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
141  recursive calls
0  db block gets
3238  consistent gets
0  physical reads
0  redo size
3130019  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
761  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
21  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
0  sorts (memory)
0  sorts (disk)
100000  rows processed

 

We notice nothing has appreciably changed, the Zone Map is still being used but the number of consistent gets remains the same as before. Why haven’t we returned back to our previous 2364 consistent gets ?

Well, as the range of possible values within the updated zone is now between 1 and 142, the required value of 42 could potentially be found within this zone and so still needs to be accessed just in case. We know that the value of 42 doesn’t exist within this zone, but Oracle has no way of knowing this based on the possible 1 to 142 range.

Hence Zone Maps work best when the data is well clustered and the Min/Max ranges of each zone can be used to limit which zones need to be accessed. If the data was not well clustered and the values within each zone mostly had ranges between the min and max values, then Oracle wouldn’t be able to effectively prune many/any zone and the Zone Map would be useless.

As we’ll see in Part III🙂

Comments»

1. Oracle 12c In-memory and IM scan CUs pruned mechanics | dmitry remizov's weblog - October 5, 2015

[…] Recently I’ve learnt about one interesting optimization technique used by Oracle in-memory database engine, i.e. CU (compression units) pruning. (see http://blogs.oracle.com/In-Memory/entry/getting_started_with_oracle_database2). It looks similar to the trick used by Exadata storage indexes (or zone maps) to skip(prune) big data ranges by storing the min and max values of some columns ( see https://richardfoote.wordpress.com/2014/10/30/12-1-0-2-introduction-to-zone-maps-part-ii-changes/). […]


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