jump to navigation

Oracle 19c Automatic Indexing: Adding Columns To Existing Automatic Indexes (2+2=5) April 7, 2020

Posted by Richard Foote in 19c, 19c New Features, Add Column To Existing Index, Automatic Indexing, Oracle Indexes.
trackback

2+2=5 Single

 

In my previous post, I discussed how when the following query is run:

select * from major_tom3 where code3=4 and code2=42;

the Automatic Indexing process will create an index on (CODE2, CODE3) but ultimately not use the index as the CBO considers the corresponding index based execution plan too expensive.

I’m going to expand on the demo and run now the following SQL for the first time (note these examples are run on the OLTP Autonomous Cloud service which explains the odd default parallel based execution plans):

SQL> select * from major_tom3
where code1=42 and code3=4 and code2=42;

10 rows selected.

Execution Plan
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                    | Name       | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT             |            |    10 |   280 |  7354   (7)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  PX COORDINATOR              |            |       |       |            |          |
|   2 |   PX SEND QC (RANDOM)        | :TQ10000   |    10 |   280 |  7354   (7)| 00:00:01 |
|   3 |    PX BLOCK ITERATOR         |            |    10 |   280 |  7354   (7)| 00:00:01 |
|*  4 |     TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL| MAJOR_TOM3 |    10 |   280 |  7354   (7)| 00:00:01 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

4 - storage("CODE1"=42 AND "CODE2"=42 AND "CODE3"=4)
    filter("CODE1"=42 AND "CODE2"=42 AND "CODE3"=4)

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
         6 recursive calls
         0 db block gets
     45853 consistent gets
         0 physical reads
         0 redo size
      1032 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       588 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
         0 sorts (memory)
         0 sorts (disk)
        10 rows processed

 

This query has a predicate that includes both CODE2 and CODE3 filtering columns as previously, but now also a new filtering column on CODE1. This now makes the resultant SQL much more selective than the previous SQL, returning just 10 rows where the previous SQL returned 9968 rows.

The current explain plan still uses the previous Full Table Scan, as the only index available is the Automatic Index created previously based on CODE2, CODE3 which has already been shown to be too expensive to return the necessary rows. The additional filtering predicate based on CODE1 doesn’t make the index any more efficient, it still has to access the 9968 rows that match the CODE2, CODE3 predicates and then filter out most of the rows less the 10 that are actually required.

So what does the Automatic Index process do in this scenario?

Let’s look at the resultant Automatic Index report:

 

INDEX DETAILS

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following indexes were created:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Owner | Table      | Index                | Key               | Type   | Properties |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| BOWIE | MAJOR_TOM3 | SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp | CODE2,CODE3,CODE1 | B-TREE | NONE       |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The following indexes were dropped:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Owner | Table      | Index                | Key         | Type   | Properties|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| BOWIE | MAJOR_TOM3 | SYS_AI_bnyacywycxx8b | CODE2,CODE3 | B-TREE | NONE      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

So the first thing to note is that Oracle first creates a new index based on columns CODE2,CODE3,CODE1.

It then drops the previously created index based on the CODE2,CODE3 columns.

If we look at the Verification Details section of the report:

VERIFICATION DETAILS

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The performance of the following statements improved:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Parsing Schema Name  : BOWIE
SQL ID               : 1hv3d685x2cy4
SQL Text             : select * from major_tom3 where code1=43 and code3=4 and code2=42
Improvement Factor   : 45853.6x

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Parsing Schema Name : BOWIE
SQL ID              : 97by2q15zprgc
SQL Text            : select * from major_tom3 where code1=42 and code3=4 and code2=42
Improvement Factor  : 45856.2x

Execution Statistics:
-----------------------------
                     Original Plan                Auto Index Plan
                     ---------------------------- ----------------------------
Elapsed Time (s):    2815446                      1046
CPU Time (s):        2741134                      1013
Buffer Gets:         596135                       13
Optimizer Cost:      7354                         13
Disk Reads:          0                            2
Direct Writes:       0                            0
Rows Processed:      130                          10
Executions:          13                           1
PLANS SECTION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Original
-----------------------------
Plan Hash Value : 2354969370

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation                 | Name       | Rows | Bytes | Cost | Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0  | SELECT STATEMENT          |            |      |       | 7354 |          |
| 1  | PX COORDINATOR            |            |      |       |      |          |
| 2  | PX SEND QC (RANDOM)       | :TQ10000   |   10 |   280 | 7354 | 00:00:01 |
| 3  | PX BLOCK ITERATOR         |            |   10 |   280 | 7354 | 00:00:01 |
| 4  | TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL | MAJOR_TOM3 |   10 |   280 | 7354 | 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Notes
-----
- dop = 2
- px_in_memory_imc = no
- px_in_memory = no
- With Auto Indexes
-----------------------------
Plan Hash Value : 2892362571

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Id | Operation                           | Name                 | Rows | Bytes | Cost | Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                    |                      |   10 |   280 |   13 | 00:00:01 |
|   1 | TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID BATCHED | MAJOR_TOM3           |   10 |   280 |   13 | 00:00:01 |
| * 2 | INDEX RANGE SCAN                    | SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp |   10 |       |    3 | 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
------------------------------------------
* 2 - access("CODE2"=42 AND "CODE3"=4 AND "CODE1"=42)
Notes
-----
- Dynamic sampling used for this statement ( level = 11 )

 

So what’s going on here?

Oracle has correctly determined that an index based on all 3 columns would enable a much more efficient access path for the new SQL, by a factor of 45856.2x no less.

In order to service BOTH known queries that the Automatic Index process has determined would benefit from an index based on predicates (CODE2=42 and CODE3=4) and (CODE2=42 and CODE3=4 and CODE1=42), a single index based on CODE2,CODE3,CODE1 would suffice.

As such, the existing index based on just CODE2,CODE3 is redundant as the new index has the same leading columns. Therefore, the existing index can be safely dropped.

If we look at the definition of the indexes on this table:

SQL> select index_name, auto, constraint_index, visibility, status compression from user_indexes where table_name='MAJOR_TOM3';

INDEX_NAME           AUT CON VISIBILIT COMPRESSION   STATUS
-------------------- --- --- --------- ------------- --------
SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp YES NO  VISIBLE   DISABLED      VALID

SQL> select index_name, column_name, column_position from user_ind_columns where table_name='MAJOR_TOM3' order by index_name, column_position;

INDEX_NAME           COLUMN_NAME          COLUMN_POSITION
-------------------- -------------------- ---------------
SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp CODE2                              1
SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp CODE3                              2
SYS_AI_cy8rs2dqb0nrp CODE1                              3

 

We notice we now have just the new index, which is both VISIBLE and VALID, based on columns in CODE2,CODE3,CODE1 order.

So Automatic Indexing is clever enough to recognise the scenario where a new index can replace an existing index by adding additional columns to cater for new SQL workloads.

Now that’s rather impressive…

Much more on Automatic Indexing to come.

Comments»

1. Oracle 19c Automatic Indexing: Mixing Manual and Automatic Indexes Part I (I Can’t Read) | Richard Foote's Oracle Blog - April 21, 2020

[…] previous articles, I discussed how Automatic Indexing has the capability to add columns or reorder the column list of previously created Automatic Indexes. However, how does Automatic […]

Like

2. Oracle 19c Automatic Indexing: Mixing Manual and Automatic Indexes Part II (Stay) | Richard Foote's Oracle Blog - May 6, 2020

[…] also discussed previously how Automatic Indexing was clever enough to logically add new columns to existing Automatic Indexes […]

Like


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: