jump to navigation

12c Partial Indexes For Partitioned Tables Part II (Vanishing Act) July 12, 2013

Posted by Richard Foote in 12c, Local Indexes, Oracle Indexes, Partial Indexes, Partitioning.
2 comments

In Partial Indexes Part I, we looked at how it was possible with the 12c database  to create a Partial Index based on data from only selected table partitions. The resultant Partial Index can be either a Global or Local Index.

In Part I, we only really looked at Global Indexes, so let’s look at a Local Index example. Using the same Partitioned Table example as before:

SQL> create table pink_floyd (id number, status varchar2(6), name varchar2(30))
indexing off
partition by range (id)
(partition pf1 values less than (1000001),
partition pf2 values less than (2000001) indexing off,
partition pf3 values less than (maxvalue) indexing on);
Table created.

This time, we’ll create a Local Partial Index:

SQL> create index pink_floyd_status_i on pink_floyd(status)
local indexing partial;

Index created.

If we look at the details of the resultant Local Index:

SQL> select index_name, partition_name, num_rows, status, leaf_blocks from dba_ind_partitions where index_name = 'PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I';

INDEX_NAME           PARTITION_NAME    NUM_ROWS STATUS   LEAF_BLOCKS
-------------------- --------------- ---------- -------- -----------
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I  PK1                      0 UNUSABLE           0
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I  PK2                      0 UNUSABLE           0
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I  PK3                1000000 USABLE          2513

We can see that for those table partitions with INDEXING OFF, the associated Local Indexes have simply been made UNUSABLE. Since Unusable Indexes consume no storage, there is effectively no corresponding index segment for these index partitions.

For the one and only PK3 table partition with INDEXING ON, its associated Local Index has been created as normal. So the end result is very similar to the previous Global Index example, only those rows from the table partitions with the INDEXING ON property are effectively being indexed.

There is one scenario in which the creation of a Partial Index is not permitted, that is in the creation of a Unique Index or a Non-Unique Index to police a Primary Key or Unique Key constraint. Some examples:

SQL> create unique index pink_floyd_id_i on pink_floyd(id)
indexing partial;
create unique index pink_floyd_id_i on pink_floyd(id) indexing partial
*
ERROR at line 1:

ORA-14226: unique index may not be PARTIAL

SQL> alter table pink_floyd add constraint pink_floyd_pk primary key(id)
using index (create index pink_floyd_id_i on pink_floyd(id) indexing partial);
alter table pink_floyd add constraint pink_floyd_pk primary key(id) using index
(create index pink_floyd_id_i on pink_floyd(id) indexing partial)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-14196: Specified index cannot be used to enforce the constraint.

SQL> create index pink_floyd_id_i on pink_floyd(id) indexing partial;

Index created.

SQL> alter table pink_floyd add primary key(id);
alter table pink_floyd add primary key(id)
*
ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01408: such column list already indexed

It clearly doesn’t make sense to create a Partial Unique Index or on a Non-Unique Index policing a PK or Unique Key constraint as it would be impossible to use such an index to guarantee the required unique property. With missing index entries associated with non-indexed partitions, how can Oracle determine whether a value from new row already exists or not ? It can’t and hence Oracle doesn’t permit the creation of such a Partial Index.

Partial Indexes can potentially be extremely useful in reducing unnecessary storage requirements, reducing index maintenance overheads and in improving performance by reducing index block accesses.

But they’re only useful (possible) with Partitioned Tables.

I’ll next look at another cool index improvement introduced with the Oracle 12c Database that’s associated with Partitioning, Asynchronous Global Index Maintenance

12c Partial Indexes For Partitioned Tables Part I (Ignoreland) July 8, 2013

Posted by Richard Foote in 12c, Oracle Indexes, Partial Indexes, Partitioning.
8 comments

In my opinion, one of the unsung “Heroes” of the new 12c Oracle database are improvements associated with Partitioning. There are lots of really nice capabilities introduced in the 12c database that significantly improves the manageability of partitioned environments.

One of those new capabilities is the ability to now create both local and (importantly) global  indexes on only a subset of partitions within a partitioned table. This provides us with the flexibility to say only create partitions with data that would make sense to index, to not index current partitions where perhaps data insert performance is paramount, etc. Additionally and just as importantly, the CBO is aware of the indexing characteristics of individual partitions and can access partitions in differing manners accordingly.

To illustrate, a simple little demo as usual :) Firstly, I’ll create a partitioned table with the new INDEXING clause:

SQL> create table pink_floyd (id number, status varchar2(6), name varchar2(30))
INDEXING OFF
partition by range (id)
(partition pf1 values less than (1000001),
partition pf2 values less than (2000001) INDEXING OFF,
partition pf3 values less than (maxvalue) INDEXING ON);
Table created.

The INDEXING clause determines whether or not the partition is to be indexed. It can be set at the table level and so set the default behaviour for the table or at the individual partition/subpartition level.

In the above example, I’ve set INDEXING OFF at the table level and so indexing by default is not be enabled for the table partitions. Therefore the PF1 partition is not indexed by default. The PF2 partition is explicitly set to also not be indexed but the PF3 index is explicitly set (INDEXING ON) to enable indexing and so override the table level default.

Let’s now populate the table with some basic data:

SQL> insert into pink_floyd select rownum, 'CLOSED', 'DAVID BOWIE' from dual connect by level <= 3000000;

3000000 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> update pink_floyd set status = 'OPEN' where id > 2000000 and mod(id,10000)=0;

100 rows updated.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

Most of the data has a STATUS column value of ‘CLOSED’ but I’ve updated a few rows within just the last partition with a STATUS set to ‘OPEN’.

Let’s now create an index on this STATUS column and collect table statistics:

SQL> create index pink_floyd_status_i on pink_floyd(status);

Index created.

SQL> exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(ownname=>user, tabname=>'PINK_FLOYD', estimate_percent=>null, cascade=> true, method_opt=>'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE 1 FOR COLUMNS STATUS SIZE 5');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select index_name, num_rows, leaf_blocks, indexing from dba_indexes where index_name = 'PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I';

INDEX_NAME             NUM_ROWS LEAF_BLOCKS INDEXIN
-------------------- ---------- ----------- -------
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I     3000000        9203 FULL

By default, an index will include all partitions in a table, regardless of the INDEXING table clause setting. So this index covers all 3M rows in the table and currently has 9203 leaf blocks. The new INDEXING column in DBA_INDEXES shows us that this index is a FULL (non-Partial) index.

We can of course get the data of interest (STATUS = ‘OPEN’) via this index now:

SQL> select * from pink_floyd where status = 'OPEN';

100 rows selected.

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                                  | Name                | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                           |                     |   964 | 24100 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
|   1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY GLOBAL INDEX ROWID BATCHED| PINK_FLOYD          |   964 | 24100 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 | ROWID | ROWID |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN                         | PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I |   100 |       |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

2 - access("STATUS"='OPEN')

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------

0  recursive calls

0  db block gets

110  consistent gets

0  physical reads

0  redo size

4479  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

609  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

8  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0  sorts (memory)

0  sorts (disk)

100  rows processed

However, we can potentially also run a query based on just the last partition as all the ‘OPEN’ statuses of interest only reside in this last partition:

SQL> select * from pink_floyd where status = 'OPEN' and id > 2000001;

100 rows selected.

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                                  | Name                | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                           |                     |    99 |  2475 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY GLOBAL INDEX ROWID BATCHED| PINK_FLOYD          |    99 |  2475 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |     3 |     3 |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN                         | PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I |   100 |       |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

1 - filter("ID">2000001)
2 - access("STATUS"='OPEN')

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------

0  recursive calls

0  db block gets

110  consistent gets

0  physical reads

0  redo size

2787  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

609  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

8  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0  sorts (memory)

0  sorts (disk)

100  rows processed

Currently however, the index includes data from all table partitions, even though we’re only really interested in using the index to retrieve the less common ‘OPEN’ status that resides in only the last table partition. With 12c, there is now the capability to only index those partitions that are of interest to us, which with proper design can also be implemented such that only those column values of interest are included within an index.

I’m going to drop and create the index as a “Partial” Index:

SQL> drop index pink_floyd_status_i;

Index dropped.

SQL> create index pink_floyd_status_i on pink_floyd(status) indexing partial;

Index created.

SQL> select index_name, num_rows, leaf_blocks, indexing from dba_indexes where index_name = 'PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I';

INDEX_NAME             NUM_ROWS LEAF_BLOCKS INDEXIN
-------------------- ---------- ----------- -------
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I     1000000        3068 PARTIAL

The new INDEXING PARTIAL clause means only those table partitions with INDEXING ON are to be included within the index.

Notice how the index, which is a Global, Non-Partitioned Index, now only has 1M entries (not all 3M as previously) and with 3068 leaf blocks is only 1/3 of what it was previously. The INDEXING column now denotes this as a “Partial” index.

If we run the query again that only explicitly references the last “active” table partition:

SQL> select * from pink_floyd where status = 'OPEN' and id >= 2000001;

100 rows selected.

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                                  | Name                | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                           |                     |   100 |  2500 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY GLOBAL INDEX ROWID BATCHED| PINK_FLOYD          |   100 |  2500 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |     3 |     3 |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN                         | PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I |    33 |       |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

1 - filter("ID">=2000001)
2 - access("STATUS"='OPEN')

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------

0  recursive calls

0  db block gets

110  consistent gets

0  physical reads

0  redo size

2787  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

609  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

8  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0  sorts (memory)

0  sorts (disk)

100  rows processed

We see that the index is used as it was previously. By stating with the ID > 2000001 predicate we’re only interested in data that can only reside in the last table partition, the partition with INDEXING ON, the CBO knows the index can be used to retrieve all the rows of interest. If we know the application will only extract data in this manner, all is well with our smaller, Partial index.

However, if it’s possible within the application to perhaps search for STATUS values from other partitions, that have INDEXING OFF:

SQL> select * from pink_floyd where status = 'OPEN';

100 rows selected.

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                                    | Name                | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                             |                     |   100 |  2500 |  2474   (1)| 00:00:01 |       |
|   1 |  VIEW                                        | VW_TE_2             |    99 |  3465 |  2474   (1)| 00:00:01 |       |
|   2 |   UNION-ALL                                  |                     |       |       |            |          |       |
|*  3 |    TABLE ACCESS BY GLOBAL INDEX ROWID BATCHED| PINK_FLOYD          |    33 |   825 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 | ROWID | ROWID
|*  4 |     INDEX RANGE SCAN                         | PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I |   100 |       |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |
|   5 |    PARTITION RANGE ITERATOR                  |                     |    66 |  1650 |  2470   (1)| 00:00:01 |     1 |     2
|*  6 |     TABLE ACCESS FULL                        | PINK_FLOYD          |    66 |  1650 |  2470   (1)| 00:00:01 |     1 |     2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

3 - filter("PINK_FLOYD"."ID">=2000001 OR "PINK_FLOYD"."ID" IS NULL)
4 - access("STATUS"='OPEN')
6 - filter("STATUS"='OPEN')

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------

0  recursive calls

0  db block gets

16341  consistent gets

8204  physical reads

0  redo size

2787  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

609  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

8  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0  sorts (memory)

0  sorts (disk)

100  rows processed

We notice the index is still used to efficiently find those rows of interest from the last partition, but a Full Table (Partition) Scan is performed to search for data from the other two partitions, for which with INDEXING OFF means the index does not contain entries that reference these partitions. As a result, this query is now much more expensive than it was previously as the index can not be used to exclusively find the rows of interest. The CBO within the one execution plan uses the index where it can and a full scan of the other partitions where it can’t use the index.

If however we were a little cleverer in how we designed our table and also created table subpartitions based on the STATUS column so that rows of interest resided in their own subpartitions and only set INDEXING ON for these subpartitions:

SQL> create table pink_floyd (id number, status varchar2(6), name varchar2(30))
indexing off
partition by range (id) subpartition by list(status)
subpartition template
(subpartition closed values ('CLOSED') indexing off, subpartition open values ('OPEN') indexing on)
(partition pf1 values less than (1000001),
partition pf2 values less than (2000001),
partition pf3 values less than (maxvalue))
enable row movement;

Table created.

Notice how only the subpartitions with a STATUS of ‘OPEN’ are now to be indexed. If we populate the table with the exact same data as before, we find the table and partial index have the follow characteristics:

SQL> select subpartition_position, subpartition_name, num_rows, indexing from dba_tab_subpartitions where table_name = 'PINK_FLOYD';

SUBPARTITION_POSITION SUBPARTITION_NAME      NUM_ROWS IND
--------------------- -------------------- ---------- ---
                    1 PF1_CLOSED              1000000 OFF
                    2 PF1_OPEN                      0 ON
                    1 PF2_CLOSED              1000000 OFF
                    2 PF2_OPEN                      0 ON
                    1 PF3_CLOSED               999900 OFF
                    2 PF3_OPEN                    100 ON

SQL> select index_name, num_rows, leaf_blocks, indexing from dba_indexes where index_name = 'PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I';

INDEX_NAME             NUM_ROWS LEAF_BLOCKS INDEXIN
-------------------- ---------- ----------- -------
PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I         100           1 PARTIAL

We can see that only the subpartitions with data of interest are now indexed. The resultant Partial global non-partitioned index is now tiny, with just the 100 index entries of interest residing in a single leaf block.

Just as importantly, a query searching for this data across the whole table is now extremely efficient and can be fully serviced by this tiny Partial index:

SQL> select * from pink_floyd where status = 'OPEN';

100 rows selected.

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                                  | Name                | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                           |                     |   100 |  2500 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
|   1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY GLOBAL INDEX ROWID BATCHED| PINK_FLOYD          |   100 |  2500 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 | ROWID | ROWID |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN                         | PINK_FLOYD_STATUS_I |   100 |       |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |       |       |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

2 - access("STATUS"='OPEN')

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------

0  recursive calls

0  db block gets

16  consistent gets

0  physical reads

0  redo size

4479  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

609  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

8  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0  sorts (memory)

0  sorts (disk)

100  rows processed

The query can now be fully serviced by the Partial index as all subpartitions that could contain data of interest are indexed and because the data of interest is all neatly clustered within the table subpartitions, can be retrieved with far fewer consistent gets than previously.

If we ever wanted to access those STATUS values of ‘CLOSED’, the CBO can only do so via a Full Table Scan as such values are not indexed. However, as these values represent the vast majority of rows in the table, the Full Table Scan would be the most appropriate and efficient manner to access these rows any-ways.

The new Partial Index capabilities introduced in Oracle 12c enables us to easily use global (and local) indexes to just index data of interest without having to change the application. Such a capability has many potential uses.

More on Partial Indexes to come soon in Part II.

12c: Intro To Multiple Indexes On Same Column List (Repetition) July 2, 2013

Posted by Richard Foote in 12c, Multiple Indexes, Oracle Indexes.
6 comments

From an indexing perspective, one of the bigger ticket items introduced with Oracle Database 12c is the new capability to create multiple indexes on the same column list. It’s even a feature listed in the New Features Guide :) This can be particularly useful when you want to change the index definition in some way but you want to reduce the time in which the corresponding columns might not indexed.

Previous to 12c, you could not create an index if the same column list is already indexed and would generate an ORA-01408: such column list already indexed error. So, if you wanted to change an index from being say a B-Tree index to a Bitmap index, or from being Unique to Non-Unique or from being Non-Partitioned to Partitioned in same manner, etc. then you had to first drop the index and re-create it again as required. This means for the period in which the index is being re-created (which could be a considerable period for a larger index), the column list is not covered by an index, which might prove to be problematic.

Here, we create a partitioned table and create a Non-Unique, Non-Partitioned index on the ID column:

SQL> create table ziggy (id number, name varchar2(30)) partition by range (id) (partition ziggy1 values less than (1000), partition ziggy2 values less than (2000), partition ziggy3 values less than (maxvalue));

Table created.

SQL> insert into ziggy select rownum, 'DAVID BOWIE' from dual connect by level <=5000;

5000 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> create index ziggy_id_i1 on ziggy(id);              

Index created.

SQL> alter table ziggy add constraint ziggy_pk primary key(id);

Table altered.

If we decide for whatever reason we want to have say a Unique index instead:

SQL> create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id);
create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id)
                                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01408: such column list already indexed

No good, we can’t, even if we make it initially INVISIBLE:

SQL> create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id) invisible;
create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id) invisible
                                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01408: such column list already indexed

Because the index is used to police a PK constraint, we can’t even just drop the index:

SQL> drop index ziggy_id_i1;
drop index ziggy_id_i1
           *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02429: cannot drop index used for enforcement of unique/primary key

We have to first drop or disable the PK constraint, then drop the index, then re-create the index.

SQL> alter table ziggy drop primary key;

Table altered.

SQL> drop index ziggy_id_i1;

Index dropped.

SQL> alter table ziggy add primary key(id) using index (create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id));

Table altered.

This means the constraint is not automatically enforced (unless we disable it with validate, thus locking the table) and the ID column is not available via an index during the entire duration of creating the new index.

The 12c database has given us more flexibility in this regard.

Providing we create the index as INVISIBLE (meaning there is only ever the one Visible index on the column list), we can now create multiple indexes on the same column list, providing the new index has a different characteristic to existing indexes. So with a 12c database:

SQL> create unique index ziggy_id_i2 on ziggy(id) invisible;

Index created.

We now have two indexes on the same column list (the ID column). An attempt however to create or alter an index such that two visible indexes have the same column list will fail:

SQL> alter index ziggy_id_i2 visible;
alter index ziggy_id_i2 visible
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-14147: There is an existing VISIBLE index defined on the same set of
columns.

This means we can now (say) replace the index policing the PK constraint quicker (or convert a B-Tree to a Bitmap index or convert a Non-Partitioned index to a Partitioned index, etc.) as we don’t now have to wait for the new index to be created first:

SQL> alter table ziggy drop primary key;

Table altered.

SQL> drop index ziggy_id_i1;

Index dropped.

SQL> alter index ziggy_id_i2 visible;

Index altered.

SQL> alter table ziggy add constraint ziggy_pk primary key(id);

Table altered.

We can create as many indexes as we like on the ID, providing only one index is ever visible at a time and providing all the indexes have some form of differing characteristic. For example, all these indexes could potentially all co-exist:

SQL> create index ziggy_id_i3 on ziggy(id) local invisible;

Index created.

SQL> create bitmap index ziggy_id_i4 on ziggy(id) local invisible;

Index created.

SQL> create index ziggy_id_i5 on ziggy(id) reverse invisible;

Index created.

Of course, having many multiple indexes on the same column list in this manner is very likely a very bad idea …

Oracle Database 12c Released – Lots of Indexing Stuff To Talk About June 26, 2013

Posted by Richard Foote in 12c, Oracle Indexes.
10 comments

Finally, Oracle have released the long awaited 12c Database. You can now download it from OTN and other usual places. This is good news as my tongue was getting rather sore from having to bite on it for so long :)

From an indexing point of view, there are lots of fantastic new features, especially from a manageability perspective. The ability to create multiple indexes with the same column list, to partially index tables, with enhanced capabilities regarding online operations, with enhanced index monitoring capabilities, etc. etc. there’s plenty that I can now discuss here.

Unfortunately, all my presentations have been rejected for Oracle Openworld this year so I won’t be able to present them over there :(

Fortunately I’ll be able to discuss them all here in lots of detail in the coming weeks, so stay tuned :)

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,861 other followers